مبانی حقوقی مداخله در کشور سوریه در چهارچوب دکترین‌های نو: نظریه مسوءولیت حمایت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

چکیده

چکیده ایده «مسوولیت حمایت» در سال 2001 برای اولین بار در گزارش کمیسیون بین‌المللی مداخله و حاکمیت مطرح گردید و در سال 2005 در اجلاس سران توسط مجمع عمومی به طور رسمی پذیرفته شد.  نظریه مسوولیت حمایت در سال 2006 توسط قطعنامه‌های 1674و 1706  شوری امنیت مورد تاکید قرار گرفت، بان کی‌مون دبیر کل سازمان ملل، نیز در 18 ژانویه 2012 بر آن تاکید کرد. با توجه به تجارب موفق و ناموفق مداخلات بشر‌دوستانه در دهه 1990 نظریه مسوولیت حمایت در صورت بدون نتیجه ماندن اقدامات صلح آمیز و به بن بست رسیدن شورای امنیت در اتخاذ تصمیم در مواجه با وضعیت‌های نقض فاحش، گسترده و سیستماتیک حقوق بشر، نسل کشی، جنایت علیه بشریت یا تجاوز، اقدام نظامی یا اقدام کم شدت نظامی مانند ایجاد منطقه پرواز ممنوع یا مناطق امن را با هدف محافظت از مردم غیر نظامی در قالب رکن سوم نظریه مسوولیت حمایت و بدون مجوز شوری امنیت مجاز می‌داند. این مقاله به بررسی مفهومی و مبانی نظری مسوولیت حمایت در معاهدات بین‌المللی، حقوق بین‌الملل عرفی، قطعنامه‌های شوری امنیت، اظهارات دبیر کل سازمان ملل و نهایتا رویه دولتها میپردازد .

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